Project Scope: Plasma Assisted Powder Deposition


1. Plasma Shaping
    a. (Nozzle) Cathode/Anode shape
    b. Corona Plasma discharging
        i. 20 400 oC gas temperature
        ii. Cooling Systems not so strict
        iii. Access to Low Melting Point Materials
        iv. Require high voltages
    c. Plasma torch & Arc discharging
        i. 3000 oC and greater gas temperatures
        ii. Cooling System considerations
        iii. Access to all Material systems
        iv. Require high wattages
    d. Solenoid Coils
    e. Plasma Gas Choice

Nitrogen Hydrogen Argon Helium
  • 7.3 kK
  • 65 kW
  • Poisonous Nitrogen Oxide formed if Oxygen is present
  • 5.1kK
  • 120 kW
  • oxygen present may form explosive mixture
  • 14kK / 20kK
  • - / 50 kW
  • high inertness

        i. Plasma Gas Temperature
        ii. Plasma distribution
        iii. Particle Velocities
2. Gas Shaping
    a. Direct injected downstream flow
    b. Secondary enshrouding flow
3. Material Particle Shaping
    a. Plasma entry location
    b. Solenoid Coils
    c. Masking Hole
        i. Hole diameter
        ii. Low stiction coefficient material or coating
4. Cooling
    a. Gas Cooling vs. water Cooling
    b. Regime of operation of Plasma
    c. Nozzle shape
    d. Cathode & Anode Metal materials
5. Material Choice

    a. Organics
        i. Low melting points
        ii. Delivery Deformation distortion of properties
        iii. Nitrogen flow to prevent oxidation
    b. Inorganic Metal Powders
        i. High melting points
        ii. Nitrogen flow to prevent oxidation
6. Addressable
    a. Horizontal Setup
    b. Substrate Mounted Gantry
    c. Powder Delivery
        i. Gravity powered entry
        ii. Pressurized Delivery
        iii. Multi-Material automation injection

Design Parameters 

Plasma Temperature (for Molten Powder without evaporation)
Substrate Delivery (Adequate temperature to condense plasma on surface)
Working Distances
  • nozzle to substrate
  • powder injector to plasma
  • Mask to substrate
  • Mask to Focused Material