<br> [MAS.865](../../) > [Additive](../index.html) >Aerosol Jet Printing ## Aerosol Jet Printing (AJ-P) Aerosol jet printing process by OPTOMEC Inc. comprised of (a) aerosol chamber equipped with ultrasonification atomizer, (b) inert gas inlet enabling transport of aerosol to vertically movable print head (c), equipped with nozzles for aerosol deposition and for creating annular sheath gas stream (d) to focus aerosol jet onto (a) horizontally movable building platform. ![aerosol-system](aerosol-system.jpg) <ul> <li>also called <b>maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D)</b> <li>developed by <a href="https://www.optomec.com/"><b>OPTOMEC Inc.</b></a> - The PATENT is <a href="https://patents.google.com/patent/US6312134B1/en">HERE </a> <li> print fine feature electronic, structural and biological patterns onto almost any substrate <li> precise deposition of electronic and other materials in dimensions ranging from 10 micrometers (microns) up to centimeter scale. </ul> ### Operating Principle from <a href ='https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acs.chemrev.7b00074#showFigures'>here:</a> "The process is based on the atomization of the building material in the aerosol chamber by means of ultrasonification (1.6−2.4 MHz) or pneumatic atomization.Processed materials comprise liquid solutions and dispersions. To comply with the requirements of the aerosol jet process, it is mandatory that the materials’ viscosity does not exceed 2500 mPa s, and that the dispersed particles possess a sufficiently small diameter so as to not clog the equipment. The atomization step typically results in a dense aerosol with droplet diameters of 1−5 μm, which is transferred to the deposition head by an inert gas stream. Within the deposition head, this stream is focused and accelerated through a nozzle with a length of 20 mm and an internal diameter of 50−300 μm. To afford further improvements in the lateral resolution of the particle stream and increase its velocity, an annular sheath gas stream is added within the deposition head. This sheath gas enables the deposition of a continuously flowing particle stream from 10 to 100 m s−1. The focus of the aerosol jet is kept constant over several millimeters between nozzle and substrate, thus facilitating 3D printing and deposition of materials on 3D substrates. Layer contours are printed by moving the platform according to CAD data with build speeds up to 200 mm s−1. Additional layers are deposited onto already built structures by subsequent printing steps. The aerosol stream is not interrupted during the process. Instead, a shutter prevents the stream from hitting the substrate according to CAD data." ### Materials & Applications ![Materials](Materials.PNG) High aspect ratio 3D structures produced by aerosol jet printing of an acrylic resin in conjunction with simultaneous UV LED curing. (a,b) Array of pillar structures with height = 1.0 mm, height variation = 1%, spacing = 0.5 mm, diameter = 90 μm. (c) Spiral structure and (d) corresponding topography as determined by line scan. Images courtesy of OPTOMEC Inc. ![Parts](parts.jpg) ### Videos <ul> <li><a href='https://www.optomec.com/printed-electronics/aerosol-jet-technology/'> Printing Antennas & Sensors on 3D Substrates </li> <li><a href='https://www.optomec.com/3d-printed-metals/lens-technology/'>Metals</a> <li><a href='https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=99&v=K-HYt42qodM'>Functional Components>. Stratasys 3D Printer is used to created the wing structure for an Unmanned Air Vehcile (UAV). Then an Optomec Aerosol Jet System is used to print electronics onto the wing structure including an RF antennae, sensor, and circuitry to power a propeller and LED. All electronic are functional. The RF antennae broadcasts live video from a camera to a remote display screen. </ul>